Since the beginning of the coalition government between PSOE and Unidas Podemos in 2019, the country has been focused on the problems derived from the pandemic, both health and economic. There is some disappointment on the left about the validity of some laws of the previous government, especially the Citizen Security Law (known as the Gag Law), which affects the citizen protests and continues to pose a problem for social movements. The main police organisations, along with the right and the extreme right, refuse to change this law. The right continues to try to promote the conflict with Catalonia and its sovereign demands, recently attacking teaching in Catalan in public education and other language normalisation policies, both in Catalonia and in other territories with their language (València, Euskadi, Galicia, Balearic Islands or Asturias). In regional parliaments where the right governs with the support of the extreme right, they try to repeal gender equality policies. In Castilla y León, the far-right Vox party has been part of the regional government since April.

Current Situation 



Since the beginning of the coalition government between PSOE and Unidas Podemos in 2019, the country has been focused on the problems derived from the pandemic, both health and economic. There is some disappointment on the left about the validity of some laws of the previous government, especially the Citizen Security Law (known as the Gag Law), which affects the citizen protests and continues to pose a problem for social movements. The main police organisations, along with the right and the extreme right, refuse to change this law. The right continues to try to promote the conflict with Catalonia and its sovereign demands, recently attacking teaching in Catalan in public education and other language normalisation policies, both in Catalonia and in other territories with their language (València, Euskadi, Galicia, Balearic Islands or Asturias). In regional parliaments where the right governs with the support of the extreme right, they try to repeal gender equality policies. In Castilla y León, the far-right Vox party has been part of the regional government since April. 

Regarding the economy, the recent labour reform promoted by the government has put a stop to the high temporary nature of contracts and reduced unemployment. Still, the economic consequences of the war in Ukraine are beginning to be felt with the increase in fuel prices, which caused work stoppages during weeks in the transport sector, as well as other essential goods. The main concerns and challenges facing the population are economic problems derived from the pandemic, job insecurity, the price of energy (historical increases in the cost of electricity), the increase in the price of housing and evictions, the precariousness of public services.

The Spanish border with Morocco has recently been a point of conflict used by the Moroccan dictator to pressure Spain. The dictator used migrants to pressure Spain against the reception of a leader of the Saharawi Polisario Front for humanitarian reasons. With the rest of the border countries (Portugal and France), there is currently no conflict, and relations are normal.

The southern border of Spain is one of the black spots where numerous human rights violations take place. Within the country, there are also prisons for migrants in an irregular situation (CIE), and anti-racist groups regularly report numerous cases of discrimination in access to work, housing or on the streets, with police controls based on racial profiling. The gender and equality laws approved by this government have represented a new offensive by the right and Catholic fundamentalism. Also, Spanish nationalism against the different cultures of the State continues to be one of the hallmarks of the right wing, but it is also defended by some groups on the left, contrary to diversity.

Status of the far-right in the country

Status of the far-right in the country

The violent actions of the extreme right in Spain are currently limited to attacks against left and local political headquarters of social organisations (bookstores, NGOs, social centres, etc …). The most serious was the attack with explosives against the Podemos headquarters in Cartagena, for which two people linked to neo-Nazi groups were arrested. There have been several attacks on LGTB people, migrants and anti-fascists in several cities.

In addition to the main far-right party (VOX), there are small organizations at the local level that carry out campaigns and various events from time to time. VOX has managed to normalise these speeches but has also removed customers from these organisations, many of which existed before this party’s irruption in the institutions.

The main fascist and far-right actors are the following:

  • Far right parliamentarian: Vox.
  • Extra-parliamentary far right:
  • Partidos políticos registrados: Democracia Nacional, España2000, Plataforma Respeto, Alianza Nacional, Falange Española de las JONS, La Falange, Coalición ADÑ, Identitarios, NOSOTROS – Partido de la Regeneración Social.
  • Grupos y organizaciones de extrema derecha: Hogar Social Madrid (Madrid), Hacer Nación (ámbito estatal), Iberia Cruor (Jaén), El Galeón Espacio No Conforme (Elda, Alicante), Valentia Forum (Valencia), Acción Juvenil Valencia (Valencia), Acción Social (Cádiz), Acción Social (Asturias), Málaga 1487 (Málaga), Asociación Cultural Alfonso I (Cantabria), Centro Social y Nacional Salamanca –CSYN– (Salamanca), Asociación Rodrigo de Bastidas (Sevilla), Asociación Cultural In Memoriam Juan Ignacio (ACIMJI) (Madrid y Valencia), Bastión Frontal (Madrid y Sevilla), Legio VII (León), Almería Inconforme (Almería), Getafe Nacional Revolucionario (Getafe, Madrid), Alcalá 1247 (Alcalá de Guadaira, Sevilla), Red Sociocultural DESPERTA (Zaragoza), Comunidad política Vértice (Almería), Devenir Europeo (Barcelona), Fundación Nacional Francisco Franco (national).


The main groups of victims of extreme right violence have historically been leftist groups, feminist groups, and racialised or LGTBI people. In recent years, parties in the Government, such as Unidas Podemos (left), have also suffered repeated attacks from the extreme right, both parliamentary (Vox) and extra-parliamentary groups.

There are problems between the parliamentary far-right and non-parliamentary far-right groups, especially in economic matters and in relations with Israel (VOX is openly pro-Israel). Within the extreme right groups that are not in parliament, there are conflicts over the movement’s hegemony and leadership.

Status of antifascists in the country

Status of antifascists in the country

Anti-fascism in the country is, for the most part, organised at the local level in neighbourhood assemblies or platforms. Its level of activity varies depending on the city of the State we are talking about. The level of organisation and activity is higher in the main capitals such as Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia. Its main activity is the organisation of conferences, talks and events, acts and dissemination campaigns, and mobilisations in the streets. There are some territories in Spain with no presence or notable activity of far-right organisations, such as the Basque Country, Galicia or the Canary Islands. Still, they also have their antifascist platforms.

The main concerns of the antifascists are the rise of the extreme right and its visualisation, the amplification of its speech. The dissemination of the speech of the extreme right, previously reduced to more marginal spaces, is now reproduced in Parliament and has much more space and repercussions because of the media. This leads to the arguments and ideologies of the extreme right being considered as topics to be discussed and the groups themselves as valid operators within the political debate. Thus, the axis of the debates and social problems is moved to the field of extreme rights.

There are debates about the response to be given to neo-Nazi groups, the actions that are most effective, as well as the use of violence and self-defence, also on participation in state institutions and political parties. The main risks facing the antifascist movement are state repression (fines, arrests and jail), as well as physical risks of aggression.

Historic Developments

Historic developments

As historical elements of confrontation between antifascists and fascists, we have mainly the Civil War (1936-1939) and the coup that led to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. The transition from dictatorship to democracy is also a matter of confrontation, as is the case with the figure of the King, whom Franco appointed. This, together with the Amnesty Laws first and the later ones of Historical Memory, have been recurrent subjects of confrontation along with the elimination of streets and squares with names of fascists and references to the dictatorship, as well as monuments, decorations and official recognitions to members of the dictatorship.

The extreme right at the institutional level is carrying out a racist discourse against immigration, sexism and LGTBI rights. At the legal level, it is trying to repeal laws that grant rights to these groups and to increase the repression of left-wing groups. As for the neo-Nazi street groups, they are carrying out actions against collectives, acts, demonstrations and social movements, attacking the headquarters of associations or left-wing groups. There is also an increase in reports of attacks on racialised or LGTBI people and of hate crimes.

The most controversial issues are immigration (as Spain is the southern border of Europe and the place of arrival of migrants), the economic crisis, opposition to the rights of women and LGTBI groups, Spanish nationalism and the unity of Spain, attack on the left both parliamentary and extra-parliamentary.

The Zapatero government (PSOE) brought radicalization and a harassment campaign from the extreme right. A particularly key recent moment was Vox’s entry into Parliament.

International relationships

International relationships

The different extra-parliamentary extreme right groups or collectives connect with similar groups in European countries. For example, groups such as Hogar Social were related to Italian neo-Nazi groups such as CasaPound and Blocco Studantesco, as is now Frontal Bastion. It is common for these groups to bring Nazi members from other countries to give talks or events. The ultra-Catholic organisation Hazte Oír, for its part, was at least originally linked to the Mexican sect El Yunque, according to a report commissioned by the Episcopal Conference in 2019.

Political Landscape

Political landscape

Since 2018, VOX has been key for the PP governments in several autonomous communities and municipalities. They have been accepted as a government partner, granting them some of their demands against equality policies. Also, its presence has been normalised in the media. There is no sanitary cordon against the extreme right in Spain. Since April 2022, Vox has been part of the regional government of Castilla y León.

VOX is constantly in the news for its habitual attacks on equality and human rights laws through inflammatory speeches and a communication strategy based on misinformation and provocation.

Regarding the percentages obtained by the extreme right and extreme right in the parliamentary and EU elections:

VOX: 15.09% in the national elections (2019) and 6.20% in the European elections (2019)

Some activists of neo-Nazi and fascist groups have ended up being part of Vox, both as militants or supporters and in its structures as advisers, as is the case of Jordi de la Fuente, a former member of the MSR (neo-fascist party) who is currently an advisor to Ignacio Garriga, Vox deputy in Catalonia.

They seek to condition the governments on the right that they support (without becoming part of them so as not to wear themselves out) and to be constantly the focus of attention in the media.

The main political agenda of the extreme right in the country is that the right apply part of its program wherever its support is essential for these governments and always conditions the public debate around its proposals.

Media Landscape

Media landscape

The extreme right in this country has, first of all, a series of newspapers and digital media for the dissemination of its ideas and messages. The leading media in the country are conservative in ideology. In addition, these groups and parties have invested in the purchase and creation of new digitals as a political strategy, as well as in the founding of television channels, YouTube channels, and other streaming media and social networks that are popular with young people.

The critical narratives are those of always the extreme right, a racist argument where immigration and Muslim people are blamed, and within this, unaccompanied minors are responsible first for the lack of work and then for crime and sexual assaults in the country. Also, a continuous attack on the rights of women and the advances of feminism, as well as those of LGTBI groups. In addition, since the arrival to power of the progressive coalition government, they have begun continuous harassment of its members with daily news, fake news, as a method of discrediting, both personal and political.

The media do not usually give publicity to the people or groups dedicated to analyzing or denouncing these extreme right-wing groups. There is normally no information about them, and when there is, it is sensational, whitewashing these groups and further normalizing their speech and presence.

Financial Landscape

Financial landscape

Non-parliamentary far-right groups have different financing methods, from the most basic ones, such as concerts, membership fees, and material sales, to shops, foundations, music groups, etc. They also carry out crowdfunding campaigns, lottery sales, or requests for donations.

The parliamentary extreme right, such as the Vox party, was financed through donations, lobbies, and foundations. Later, the financing for its creation was made public through an Iranian group considered terrorist by the US and the European Union. At present, by being part of the Institutions, it receives subsidies from public funds. This party also draws on different Foundations, lobbies, think tanks, and law firms.


Quarterly Reports

Quarterly reports give in-depth insights into the most pressing recent social and political developments in each country as they pertain to the local far-right networks and their international allies.

Spain - March 2023
Spain - March 2023

Introduction & Updates in National Landscape

The motion of censure presented by Vox against Pedro Sánchez took place at the beginning of March. The initiative was proposed as a candidate for president of the Government of Ramón Tamames, a historical politician of the Communist Party, and has been rejected with the only votes in favor of the deputies of Vox and a former deputy of Ciudadanos. The motion has failed with 201 votes against and 53 in favor.
But the motion has also given the starting point for the electoral campaign for the municipal elections in May and the regional elections, which will also be held on the 28th of that month in Aragón, Asturias, the Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, the Valencian Community, Extremadura, Illes Balears, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, and in the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla. Vox has held rallies in Cantabria, where it presents a former PP candidate, and in Valladolid, among other cities, and has announced as one of its main promises to eliminate the Ministry of Equality.
Other smaller far-right parties, such as National Democracy, have announced that they will not run in the elections, giving their militants a free hand to vote for whoever they decide but mentioning Vox.
The Vox Solidaridad union has strengthened at the union level, ranking second with the most delegates, only behind UGT.
At the legislative level, the extreme right has had one of lime and one of sand this month. While the Constitutional Court has admitted to processing the appeal presented by Vox against the reform of the Penal Code that eliminated the crime of sedition, for which the people considered to be organizers of the 2017 Catalan Referendum were convicted, the Falange has been fined again in within the framework of the Law of Democratic Memory, this time for an act in Valladolid in which its militants sang the Face to the Sun, the anthem of the Spanish Falange of the Jons.

Transnational Activities & Group Interactions

Internationally, Vox continues to expand its influence throughout Latin America, this time with the Madrid Lima Forum, organized by the affiliated organizations Disenso. The meeting, described by former Peruvian President Pedro Castillo on social networks as “the master plan to support the Boluarte Dictatorship,” was attended by Rocío Monasterio (Vox), various politicians from the Fujimori and Bolsonaro governments in Brazil. , Ernesto Araújo, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, among others.
In the European Union, the Solidarity union has played the leading role, which on March 30, traveled to the European Parliament to present a manifesto against migration, “climate fanaticism,” among other issues, and which has so far counted 108,000 signatures.

Spain - February 2023
Spain - February 2023

Introduction & Updates in National Landscape

The agenda of the Spanish far-right is once again led by Vox, this time for proposing a motion of no confidence against President Pedro Sánchez proposing Ramón Tamames as an alternative president. Tamames is a well-known politician who, in his youth, participated in the movement against the Franco dictatorship and went to jail for it. Later, he represented the Communist Party after Franco’s death. The election of Tamames, who is currently 89 years old, by the president of Vox, Santiago Abascal, has drawn attention due to his age and for having been a political figure, the opposite of what the far-right party defends. After conversations between the leader of Vox and Tamames for a good part of the month, on February 27, Vox presented its motion of no confidence in Congress, for which there is still no date for a vote.
Other far-right parties, such as Falange de las Jons, have described the initiative in a derogatory manner as “the latest occurrence of Vox.”
The month has also been marked by the first pre-election events, specifically with a large Vox event in Murcia that, according to them, brought together 15,000 people in the city’s bullring on February 12 and another in Zaragoza on 24 of the same month in which the party returned to influence its program of thematic referendums. It has been the starting signal for the electoral campaign, which brings together acts for the municipal elections of all of Spain and the autonomous ones of twelve of the 17 autonomous communities, in addition to the two autonomous cities —Ceuta and Melilla—.

Transnational Activities & Group Interactions

In February, Hitler fan Simon Lindberg, Swedish far-right leader of the Nordic Resistance Movement, visited Spain to participate in a semi-clandestine event organized by Devenir Europeo with the motto “Blood Day”, according to the newspaper Público. Lindberg is ranked as one of the 20 most dangerous extremists in the world, according to the Counter Extremism Project, which notes that “his speeches are regularly viewed by thousands of people who then perpetrate violent actions against the Muslim and Jewish community.”
For their part, members of La Falange have traveled to Bulgaria to participate in a tribute to Hristo Lukov, an extreme right-wing Bulgarian soldier who died in February 1943 in an action attributed to Violera Yakoba, a Jewish partisan who was later tortured to death.
Outside the European borders, Vox has been very active as well. The MEP from the far-right party Hermann Tertsch and the Vox candidate for the government of Madrid, Rocío Monasterio, have come to Miami to be named ambassadors of the Cuban Exile in an act held at the House of the Cuban Diaspora in the US city. The event was attended by representatives of Fundación Disenso and Foro Madrid, organizations born under the protection of Vox to organize the international extreme right.
This month Foro Madrid has focused on Peru with a letter addressed to the president of the Organization of American States in which they accuse Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, and other countries of political interference in the government of Dina Boluarte for affirming that the elected president of Bolivia, Pedro Castillo, was the victim of a coup. 118 parliamentarians from 14 countries have signed the letter.

Spain - January 2023
Spain - January 2023

Introduction & Updates in National Landscape

Feminist issues have starred in the agenda of the Spanish extreme right in January. In the first place, as a result of a modification in the medical protocol for abortions in Castilla y León, the only autonomous community in which the extreme right-wing Vox party is part of the government, together with the Popular Party.
On January 12, the vice president of the community, Juan García Gallardo, from Vox, announced a change in the protocol by which doctors would be obliged to offer women who want an abortion to listen to the heartbeat of the fetus, taking Hungary as an example. . The announcement was criticized even by the president of the community, who the following week rejected what Gallardo had said, stating that it would be the women who came to have an abortion who could request to hear the heartbeat of the fetus or the doctors offer it to them. The change in the protocol was responded to by the central government with threats to go to court if anti-abortion measures were applied in the community.
The Castilla y León announcement was accompanied by a campaign by all the far-right groups asking, “why are you so scared that mothers have the chance to hear their child’s heartbeat?”
The other big issue related to feminism was the Law on sexual freedom, known as ‘only yes is yes’, which, among other changes in terms of sexual crimes, merges the crimes of sexual abuse and assault, putting the lack of consent, and not if there was physical aggression, as a key for the act to be criminal. Another of the changes was to modify the minimum and maximum sentences, a change that in many courts caused sentences already issued in previous years to be changed, now applying the minimum sentence. During the last months and especially in January, as a result of several releases of sexual offenders, the law only if it is yes has been a workhorse of the extreme right against the government of PSOE and Unidas Podemos, especially since the government left the Ministry of Equality, directed by Irene Montero, spouse of Pablo Iglesias, who is the black beast of the Spanish extreme right, making Montero the target of serious insults within Congress by Vox deputies.
At the legislative level, the Democratic Memory Law, called by the extreme right as the “new Gag Law,” also continues to provoke reactions from the extreme right. In January, Vox registered an appeal against the law in the Constitutional Court.
Also in January, the effects of the law began to be felt with the announcement by the Government of the opening of a disciplinary file against La Falange and Falange Española de las JONS for the march held on November 12 in homage to Francisco Franco and Rivera’s cousin.
The month has continued with several important appointments for the extreme right. One of them was the demonstration on January 11 called by farmers from Almería, Alicante, and Murcia in Madrid for the limitation of the transfer of water from the Tagus to the Segura river. The distribution of water among the Spanish communities has always been an issue used by the Popular Party and the extreme right to win votes. The leader of Vox, Santiago Abascal, also continues to carry out a political campaign on this issue.
The other big event was a demonstration held on January 21 against the Government of Pedro Sánchez, called by a hundred groups of the extreme right under the slogan ‘For Spain, democracy and the Constitution.’ The demonstration, which was attended by several tens of thousands of people, was also attended by politicians from Vox, Ciudadanos, and Partido Popular.
The war in Ukraine has been another of the main issues for which the extreme right has criticized the government, especially with the new arms shipment made in January.
The attack on two churches in Algeciras, investigated as an alleged jihadist attack, has also been used by the extreme right to demand, once again, xenophobic policies.
Within the far-right parties, the two main milestones have been the announcement by the Falange that they will stand in the municipal elections of Seville, and that of Vox that appoints, once again, Rocio Monasterio as a Vox candidate for the regional elections of the Community of Madrid.
But if the name of Rocío Monasterio and her spouse, Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, has given rise to talk this month, it has been as a result of a dispute within the extreme right following an interview conducted by the extreme right-wing journalist Federico Jiménez Losantos in EsRadio to Monasterio. The interview, in which the interviewers laughed at Monasterio for his defense of the anti-abortion measure announced in Castilla y León, was followed by Espinosa de los Monteros with messages on social networks in which he accused the Losantos chain of making a campaign against Vox. And that in turn was followed by a video issued by Losantos criticizing and revealing the participation of the Vox couple in the Mexican sect El Yunque.

Transnational Activities & Group Interactions

In the last days of January, Hacer Nación held a Summer University in which components participated, in addition to Gustavo Bueno, vice president of Denaes, a Vox foundation, the French far-right activist Thais d’Escufon, spokesperson for Generation Identitaire.
For its part, Democracia Nacional held a conference with the name Nueva Reconquista in which, in addition to having the appearance of its leader, Pedro Chaparro, after his time in jail, the Italian Roberto Fiore, from Forza Nuova, was invited
The Falange and its leader, Manuel Andrino, have also met with the French Laura Lussaud from Les Nationalistes, and with Roberto Fiore from Forza Nuova
The Falangist Youth of Spain and the Spanish University Union, both linked to the Falange, have also received a delegation from the Romanian organization linked to the Camarazii army in Majadahonda to pay homage to Ion Mota and Vasile Marin, members of the far-right Romanian organization Guardia de Iron. The Falange leadership received, for its part, members of the George Manu Foundation
For her part, Rocío Monasterio attended the V National Convention of the Portuguese Chega party.

Spain - December 2022
Spain - December 2022

Introduction & Updates in National Landscape

The conflict in the Spanish judicial system has marked the agenda of the Spanish extreme right in December, a month in which a symbolic anniversary is celebrated, the Day of the Spanish Constitution, contradictory for the extreme right parties with parliamentary representation, that is, Vox.
At the state level, December 6 has been a key date. On the one hand, on this day, demonstrations have once again been held by the most reactionary sectors of the police, explicitly supported by extreme right-wing groups. These protests come from previous months when several police officers were reprimanded for spreading racist speech at events organized by Vox. In December, the demonstration was called by the Police for Freedom platform, born in 2020 as a result of the measures taken by the Government against the Covid pandemic of a denialist nature and which disseminated messages encouraging people not to get vaccinated against covid. The policeman Ricardo Ferris —sanctioned for spreading racist hoaxes— and several denialist groups participated in it and had the explicit support of the far-right party España 2000.
The relationship between the extreme right and the police forces was also made clear on December 11, this time by Vox, whose president, Santiago Abascal, traveled to Pamplona, ​​along with officials from the Popular Party and Ciudadanos, for the rally called to reject the Agreement of the Navarrese Government by which the powers over traffic in the autonomous community are removed from the Civil Guard. Not many other people attended the event, which several hundred demonstrators attended. The presence of the Civil Guard in Navarra has been the subject of controversy for years due to the relationship of this police force with the war against ETA and the torture and murder of people of Basque nationalist ideology.
On the same day 6, the Day of the Spanish Constitution was celebrated, born after the Franco dictatorship. It is a contradictory date for far-right parties. From the Popular Party, they have criticized the absence of Vox charges in the official acts organized on this day. From Abascal’s party, they argue their absence stating that “in the paripé of PSOE and Podemos they will not find us” and pointing out that the only act they will attend will be the raising of the Spanish flag organized by the Defense Staff, a superior institution of the Army Spanish.
We continue with December 6, when the World Cup soccer match between Spain and Morocco was also held. The match, which the Moroccan team won, was followed by the spread of dozens of hoaxes about looting, arson, and even murders committed by Moroccan supporters. The hoaxes were spread by extreme right-wing groups such as National Democracy.
And also, on December 6, the trial began for the altercations that on November 30, 2014, ended with the death of Jimmy, a Galician soccer fan. Jimmy was beaten and thrown into the Manzanares River, allegedly by supporters of the Frente Atlético, a soccer fan associated with the extreme right. However, the investigation into the death was archived in 2016, and in December, the trial began, not about his death, but about the altercations in which, in addition to the followers of the Athletic Front, anti-fascist fans of the Riazor Blues club would have participated, of Deportivo de La Coruña. The trial, in which there were 82 defendants from both the Athletic Front and the Riazor Blues, took place over 17 days. Two days before it began, two supporters of the Frente Atlético were arrested for threatening a protected witness.
But the main battle car of the extreme right in December has been the renewal of the magistrates that make up the high courts in Spain. Specifically, the Constitutional Court, in which several of its magistrates had spent months with their mandate expired, was blocked by the conservative bloc in the General Council of the Judiciary, made up of magistrates previously elected by the Popular Party. The PSOE government has approved an amendment to the law that defines the election of judges, which has been branded as a “coup d’état by the right and the “extreme right.” From Vox they have filed an appeal for protection before the Constitutional Court itself and a complaint against the President of the Government, Pedro Sanchez, whom they accuse of “conspiring for rebellion.”
Within Abascal’s party, the changes have also continued. After the departure of Macarena Olana, the far-right party has now named new candidates for the regional elections in País Valencià and Aragón. In PaísValecià, Carlos Flores, a professor of constitutional law who was sentenced for harassing his wife in 2002 and who in 1982 appeared on the lists for the general elections as number 8b of the Fuerza Nueva party, has been appointed candidate. In Aragon, their candidate is less well known: Alejandro Nolasco is a historian, and one of his favorite subjects, about which he has written a book, is the Blue Division, the volunteer division sent by Franco to Hitler in World War II. He is also a contributor to Intereconomía, a television channel linked to the extreme right.

Transnational Activities & Group Interactions

Regarding relations with other European far-right groups, December has been a quiet month, with many parties enough to take planes. Despite this, the Deputy Secretary of Foreign Affairs for National Democracy, Gonzalo Martín, has traveled to Poland, where he has been received by representatives of the MW (Młodzież Wszechpolska), an extreme right-wing ultra-Nacjonalist and ultra-Catholic organization.
For its part, Devenir Europeo, the heir to Cedade, has received a visit from representatives of the youth branch of the German party Der Dritte Weg.

Spain - November 2022
Spain - November 2022

Introduction & Updates in National Landscape

November is an important month for the extreme right in Spain, with two important anniversaries, those of the deaths of the dictator Francisco Franco and José Antonio Primo de Rivera. The acts in his honor have been held despite the fact that the Democratic Memory Law, which prohibits them, has already entered into force.
The month has also been marked by convulsions within Vox, with more and more officials presenting their resignation and denouncing the lack of internal democracy in the party, and by the proposal by the Government to repeal the crime of secession for which they were condemned the leaders of the Catalan process, which has aroused the anger of far-right parties and groups.
Updates in the National Landscape The month has started with two important milestones for the far right. On the one hand, on November 3, the exhumation of Queipo de LLano, a Francoist general with a large number of murder victims —45,000 executions are attributed to him— and rape —behind his back in Andalusia, of the basilica of La Macarena, was carried out. In sevilla. The act, which responds to the Democratic Memory Law, which came into force the previous month, has led to the protest of extreme right-wing groups and the family. Also the applause of the historical memory groups.
A day later, Macarena Olona, ​​a former Vox candidate for the Andalusian elections and now outside the far-right party, presented her new foundation, Latin American Equality, based in Panama and financed by the Spanish businessman Roberto Rollón García. Already on October 18, it had been represented in Panama, with an anti-feminist speech. Its first objective is to collect 500 signatures to present a popular legislative initiative in Spain to repeal gender laws, following in the wake of Vox, which at its September congress will also launch another form of political participation, although not binding, popular consultations.
Olona has also been the protagonist of an interview with the newspaper El País in which she denounces the “lack of democracy” within Vox as the reason for his departure from the party and in which he describes the praises of Hitler that are made in Abascal’s party.
It has not been the only internal problem that Vox has faced this month. In Vega Baja, south of Alicante, the Vox coordinator has also resigned accusing the lack of democracy in the party and has announced that another 50 positions in the province will also resign shortly.
On the contrary, in Castilla y León, the only autonomous community in which Vox is part of the government, the first consequences of the presence of the far-right party have begun to be seen, with the suppression of aid for women victims of gender violence.
On those same days, senior Vox officials went to Ceuta to hold a meeting called Frontera Sur. In it, Ignacio Garriga, Javier Ortega Smith, Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, Jorge Buxadé and Rocío de Meer focused, as usual, on the closure of borders, even though they are already closed in southern Spain, and the relationship between immigration and crime. One of the guests at the conference was Samuel Vázquez, president of the Una Policía para el Siglo XXI association. Vázque was one of the speakers who accompanied the former Valencian police commissioner Ricardo Ferris on October 14 at an event organized by Vox and the Denaes Foundation, and for which Ferris was sanctioned by the Ministry of the Interior and removed from his position in the Police for giving false information to link crime with irregular immigration. The Prosecutor’s Office has also announced that it will investigate whether Ferris’s statements are the subject of a crime. The relationship between the police officer and Vox is close. On October 7, he was invited to appear in the Madrid Assembly, at the request of the far-right party to talk about security. After the October event with Ferris, Vázquez continued his tour with Vox by participating in the Frontera Sur event, also convened by Vox and the European Conservative and Reform Party. “From Una Policía para el Siglo XXI we thank Frontera Sur and Vox for the invitation and the opportunity to expose how, by renouncing to defend our borders, we are digging the grave of the West and condemning our children to a future of machete blows and gang rapes. ”, indicates the association that Vázquez presides over on social networks.
On November 11, the far-right party España 2000 attended a rally called by the Jupol police union in support of Ferris, who during the event called to “fight” against the “undignified” government. Several media outlets point out that Vox is considering presenting Ferris as the party’s candidate in Valencia.
At the legislative level, the proposal by the Government of the PSOE and Unidas Podemos, with the support of the Catalan party ERC regarding the repeal of the crime of sedition for which the leaders of the Procés were convicted for calling a popular consultation on the independence of Catalonia , has been the main battlefront of the extreme right, which has branded the proposal as “treason.” “We have to see how the traitor Sánchez kneels again before the enemies of Spain so that they get off scot-free and advance in their federal Spain,” said Ignacio Garriga, general secretary of Vox in Congress.
Other far-right groups, such as Hacer Nación, maintain a discourse similar to that of Vox, branding Catalans who advocate independence as “enemies”, following the repeal proposal.
Santiago Abascal presented the Vox plan against the proposal, which involves denouncing the legislative reform in the courts, calling a referendum to outlaw the separatist political parties and calling for demonstrations on November 19 and 27.
The hatred of everything Catalan on the part of the extreme right has also caused a Catalan teacher in Mallorca to be the target of death threats by sympathizers of extreme right groups.
Meanwhile, in Madrid, the Popular Party responded to the new Law of Democratic Memory with the inauguration of a monument to the Legion, a military body created by Millán Astray, a well-known position in the Franco regime, and related to the colonialist wars before the dictatorship and, during the civil war, for his savagery against the defenders of democracy. On November 9, the mayor of Madrid, José Martínez-Almeida, inaugurated the statue in a ceremony in which Vox had more prominence, despite the fact that the PP politician gave a speech extolling Astray.
The month of November in Spain is also marked by a mythical date for the extreme right, November 20, the anniversary of the death of Francisco Franco (1975) and José Antonio Primo de Rivera (1936), founder of La Falange. Despite the entry into force of the Democratic Memory Law, which punishes acts that extol the Franco dictatorship, far-right parties and groups celebrated the date with events, especially in Madrid, with a march to the Valley of the Fallen, and in Alicante, in whose prison Primo de Rivera died.
In the courts, November has been marked by the first permission to leave prison for the neo-Nazi convicted of the murder of the anti-fascist Carlos Palomino on the same weekend that celebrates the anniversary of his death.
Also for the first conviction of a person for spreading fake news. Specifically, the convicted person is a Civil Guard agent who spread hoaxes about migrants on social networks, in which he also shared far-right messages and symbols.
Another character from the extreme right has also been the protagonist, but not because he has been accused. In November it became known that the legal defense of Laura Borrás, a Catalan politician accused of corruption, had hired Emilio Hellín as an expert, sentenced to 43 years in prison for the murder, in 1980, of the student Yolanda González, together with other members of the New Force Party. Hellín, who fled to Paraguay, who barely served 12 years in prison, has worked on different occasions as a specialist expert for the National Police and the Civil Guard.
Another name of the extreme right that has been the protagonist is that of Cristina Seguí, co-founder of Vox, which the Prosecutor’s Office is investigating for publicly exposing data on underage women who have suffered rape.

Transnational Activities & Group Interactions

At the international level, Vox has taken advantage of COP27 to make international propaganda with a topic that has nothing to do with the environment. Through Foro Madrid, an organization created by Fundación Disenso, founded by Vox, they send a letter to French President Emmanuel Macron recriminating having met with Venezuelan Nicolás Maduro. The letter is signed by more than 60 political personalities from 19 countries, among them, of course, the Argentine Javier Milei, or the Italian Carlo Fodanza, from Fratelli d’Italia.
It has also continued to strengthen its relationship with the Polish government. At the end of November, Abascal met with Jaroslaw Kaczyński and the country’s prime minister in Warsaw to discuss borders, illegal immigration and the war in Ukraine. “Poland’s border was assaulted by thousands of illegal African and Arab immigrants sent by Putin’s allies from Belarus,” the Vox president said on social media after his visit.
Norberto Pico, head of the Spanish Falange of the JONS, has also strengthened ties with far-right organizations in other countries, participating as a speaker, via videoconference, in a congress called “Theory and azione political cattolica” held in Rome, organized by the organizations Italian Militia Christi and La Rete dei patrioti.
For his part, Manuel Andrino, head of La Falange, has participated in the national congress of the French organization Les Nationalistes, held in Lyon, with whom he claims to have been working together for more than 30 years.
Beyond Europe, Abascal has participated, also by videoconference, in the Conservative Political Action Conference held on November 18 in Mexico, along with other well-known names from the world extreme right such as Steve Bannon or Eduardo Bolsonaro, son of the former Brazilian president.

Spain - October 2022
Spain - October 2022

October has been marked by the approval of the Democratic Memory Law, which has ignited the spirits of extreme right-wing groups and parties, whose speeches and acts praising Francoism are now punishable by the new law. The link between the extreme right and the police forces has jumped into the media after the decoration awarded to the leader of España2000 and the participation of a police officer in a Vox conference. Santiago Abascal’s party also held a major event in October in which it received leaders of the extreme right from various European and Latin American countries.
Updates in the National Landscape
The main milestone of the month has been the definitive approval by the Senate of the Law of Democratic Memory, with which for the first time the Spanish State condemns Franco’s coup d’état and his totalitarian regime. Among some of the novelties of the new law, in addition to the State’s assumption of the search for the disappeared during the dictatorship, is the resignification of the Valley of the Fallen, a mausoleum built by Franco to honor the fallen Francoists in the civil war and the himself, whose body was already exhumed from this pantheon in 2019. It also contemplates sanctions for actions that suppose the exaltation of the Franco regime. A point that has caused the protest of the groups of the extreme right and of Vox. On the day of its processing, a few dozen militants from the Falange Española de las JONS and La Falange went to the Senate to protest. The two Falangist parties also issued a joint statement in the days prior to the approval of the law in which they accused the socialist government of “imposing a manipulated version of history” and, above all, criticizing the exhumation of the body of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange, from the Valley of the Fallen. On behalf of Vox, its MEP Jorge Buxadé gave conferences at the European Parliament headquarters in Strasbourg against the new law and, at the national level, the party is trying to protect by law certain “elements of Spanish heritage” related to the Franco dictatorship.,inolvidable%20para%20la%20democracia%20espa%C3%B1ola. From the Popular Party they have also already announced their opposition to changing the name of streets that currently honor the Blue Division, sent by Franco to fight alongside the Nazis in World War II. Entities such as the Francisco Franco Foundation have also responded to the new law, in the face of its possible outlawing, and from Hazte Oír have sent letters to the current King Felipe VI encouraging him, since the monarchy in Spain is heir to Francoism, to “prepare for what that comes over him”.
Other milestones in national politics in Spain that have led to a reaction on the part of the extreme right have been the pending renewal of the magistrates who form part of the General Council of the Judiciary, which in Spain would be the equivalent of the government of the judges, and the announcement by the government of the revision in the Penal Code of the crime of sedition for which the leaders of the Catalan independence movement were convicted in Catalan institutions in 2019. The announcement of the criminal change has been used by the Popular Party to announce a sine die blockade of the renewal of the judicial body, a decision applauded and supported by the far-right Vox party.
The rejection of the Catalan independence movement has also been the protagonist in two mythical dates for the extreme right in Spain. On the one hand, on October 12, Hispanic Heritage Day, which in Catalonia was celebrated with anti-separatist rallies in which dozens of people displayed Francoist symbols, and on October 9, the day of the Valencian Country, a date on which the extreme right also celebrates its anti-Catalanism . In Valencia, España2000 and La Falange have called demonstrations against Catalanism and against the current Valencian government. Three days later, on October 12, Columbus Day, groups and parties of the extreme right again called demonstrations. The most notorious were in Barcelona, ​​although they did not gather many people. One of the convening parties and groups was National Democracy, with a march from Plaza de España to Montjuic with Pablo Lucini, Enrique Lemus —from El Alcázar—, Vicente EStarelles —Spain in Memory— and Miguel Blasco —Here the voice of Europe— as headliners. Falange, for its part, summoned its followers to the monument to Christopher Columbus, where Vox supporters also gathered under the slogan “For the unity of Spain.”
October has been an important month for Vox, which has held its big party , Viva22, on the 9th and 10th, which they claim has been attended by 35,000 people and in which they have presented their latest communication strategy, Spain Decide, a program with the that the party claims to intend to promote popular consultations on issues such as energy policy, migration, education, outlawing separatist parties, water, subsidies and data sovereignty.
The party led by Santiago Abascal has also had strong changes in its organization chart in October, with Javier Ortega Smith now assuming the vice presidency of the party and the candidacy for the next municipal elections in Madrid, and Ignacio Garriga, number one of Vox in Catalonia, the position Secretary General of Vox.
Falange and Falange Española de las JONS have also celebrated their anniversary this month, although with a more discreet party. The party held an act in front of the Teatro de la Comedia in Madrid on October 29, which was authorized on the 22nd of the same month despite the fact that the Democratic Memory Law prohibits acts that praise the coup.
España2000 has also had its moment of glory this month. Its leader, José Luis Roberto, has been awarded by the National Police in Paterna (Valencia) for the collaboration that his company, Levantina de Seguridad, provides to this body. The award has caused controversy to the point that the Minister of the Interior, Fernando Grande-Marlaska, has announced that the Higher Police Headquarters of the Valencian Community is going to open a file “to purge the responsibilities that come”.
It was at the beginning of October, and a little less than two weeks later, another story appeared in the media linking the police with the extreme right. This time the protagonist was Ricardo Ferris, a police inspector, who in a conference organized by Vox in Valencia, stated that “irregular immigration is equal to crime” and that “practically all of those detained”. Six days later, the General Directorate of Police relieved Ferris of his position for offering false data at the conference with the aim of relating immigration to crime.
October has also been a prolific month in terms of far-right violence and its response in court. On October 25, the police arrested a man for an attack on a person of Moroccan origin on the 7th of this month in the Sevillian town of San Juan de Aznalfarache. The detainee, who already has a history of assaults on people of foreign origin, had tattoos of Nazi symbols. Specifically some sigel runes of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
The previous month, at the end, three other people who carried Nazi symbols were arrested in Gerona for stabbing a young man at the Santa Coloma de Farners festivities on September 23. In Catalonia, the leader of National Democracy in the autonomous community, Alberto Bruguera, and two other extreme right-wing people have been sentenced for insulting and assaulting three Catalan pro-independence people in 2018. The sentence, just one and a half years in prison, which It will not imply the entry into prison of any of the three, a long way from the one requested by the Prosecutor’s Office, which amounted to six years in prison. In Madrid, Melisa Domínguez, leader of Hogar Social Madrid, was tried on the 19th of this month for calling a rally in front of one of the largest mosques in Madrid, whose walls were covered with messages of hate the next day. The prosecutor asks for three years in prison for her.
There have also been developments in the judicial process against Manuel Murillo, initially sentenced to seven and a half years in prison for attempting to assassinate Spanish President Pedro Sánchez in response to the processing of the Democratic Memory Law. The National Court has increased the sentence to 15 more months to reach nine years in prison. In Valencia, despite the fact that since April the harassment of women who go to a clinic to have an abortion is included as a crime in the Penal Code, the courts have decided to acquit them of the ultra-Catholic organization 40 days for Life, which calls prayers in front of the clinic.
Transnational Activities & Group Interactions
The great Vox party in Madrid, under the slogan ‘The History we made together’, became the meeting point for great personalities of the world extreme right on October 8 and 9, such as Donald Trump, Giorgia Meloni, Álvaro Uribe, Viktor Orbán or Mateusz Morawiecki, André Ventura —from the Portuguese Chega party—, Javier Milei —from the Argentine La Libertad Avanza party—, Jose Antonio Kast —from the Chilean Republican Party—, former Bolivian president Jeanine Áñez and Texas senator Ted Cruz, representative of the most right wing of the Republican party.
After his big party, in the following two days Vox held an Ibero-American Summit “against communism and globalism” at the Sao Paulo Forum. Among its participants were, once again, Jose Antonio Kast and Javier Milei. Also Mike Gonzalez, from the Heritage Foundation, Rodrigo Ballester, from the Hungarian Mathias Corvinus Collegium.
From Spain 2000 in October they traveled to Rome for the anniversary of the March on Rome. Although there is no information on the number of militants of this far-right party that participated in the trip, its leader, José Luis Roberto, has published images of his visit to Casa Pound in Rome.
Transnational Developments on Discourse in Mainstream Media
In the European Parliament, the main interventions of the Vox MEPs have been focused on the subsidies granted to Moroccan agriculture and the alleged participation of George Soros in the Catalan independence process.

1 2 3


United Against Hate: A Kilo of Information on the Spanish Far Right

De los neocón a los neonazis (From Neocons to Neo-Nazis), the collective volume edited by Miquel Ramos and Nora Rodríguez, was launched in October 2021 with a presentation that turned into a ceremony to celebrate the union of the publications